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In the 57th year under the reign of Emperor Qianlong (1792), after suppressing Gorkha, the Qing Dynasty decreed an ordinance in order to improve the administration of Tibet, which being included in "the Court of Colonial Affairs Regulations" later. The ordinance specified in detail the regulations of the religious, military, administrative, foreign and other affairs regarding to Tibet, and became the important basis for the Qing Dynasty's governing of Tibet, in which, article one of the ordinance specified reincarnated soul boys of the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Erdeni and various grand Hutuktus must be recognized by the Drawing Lots from the Golden Urn. Article 22 of the ordinance specified, all Living Buddhas and Lamas from the monasteries governed by the Dalai Lama must be registered in detail. Central governments and local governments administrated the Living Buddhas respectively based on their grades. (Yang Hongjiao)
Chinese Translation (The Archives of Tibet Autonomous Region, A Collection of Historical Archives of Tibet, Cultural Relics Press, 1995, Archive No. 50)
Article 1 About the affairs for searching for reincarnated boys, after various parties investigating carefully and divining the four grand Dharmapalas, it needs to write names and birth years and months of the candidate soul boys on the lots and place them in the Imperial granted Urn, then select Lamas with broad attainment to pray for seven days. Then various Hutuktus along with the Amban recognized the soul boys before the statue of Sakyamuni. Otherwise, if the four Dharmapalas agree on same soul boy, it needs to place one lot with the soul boy's name on it and another lot without name on it in the Urn. If the lot without name on it is drawn out, then the soul boy cannot be recognized and it needs to continue the search. What's more, if for recognition of the Dalai Lama's and the Panchen Erdeni's soul boys, it needs to write their names in Manchu, Chinese and Tibetan on the lots to convince people all over the nation.
Article 2 Gorkha has surrendered. It needs to dispatch troops to the boarder to keep peace of Tibet. Henceforward, foreign travelers and businessmen coming into Tibet should all be registered and reported to the Amban office for registration. Travelers and businessmen from Nepal can come at most three times annually and travelers and businessmen from Kashmir can come at most once annually. All travelers and businessmen, wherever they come from, their administrative headmen should report to the Amban Office for application in advance. The Amban Office then issues the passports according to the routes they will pass. Soldiers are dispatched to be stationed in the two sites, Gyantse and Tingri. The travelers and businessmen should show passports for check when passing the two sites. All the foreigners should be investigated and reported their numbers and checked when they arrive Lhasa. Foreigners come from Bhutan, Dremojong, Jumpa etc. shall follow above measures as well, being investigated by the leaders of various borders. For people dispatched by Tibetan government to Nepal for constructing Triratna buildings or pilgrimage, the Amban Office issues passports for them. If for people don't come back in limited time, the Amban shall deliver official documents to Gorkha king to call them back.
Article 3 For long time, Tibetan Zhangkas has been adulterate, it should be forged from pure silver from now on. Following the old standard, one Zhangka weights one Qian and five Fen; six pure silver Zhangkas are worth one tael of Han silver; One tael of Han silver includes minting cost of 1 Qian of silver. All pure silver Zhangkas and Nepal pure silver Zhangkas made newly shall take above price ratio as standard. As to all old and new adulterate Zhangka, eight Zhangkas are worth one tael of Han silver. From now on, Zhangkas should be made without any adulteration.
Article 4 Establish a new army of 3,000 men: 1,000 shall be stationed in Ü-Tsang, another 1,000 in Gtsang, 500 in Gyantse, and 500 in Tingri. Every 500 soldiers shall be managed by one Daiben. The header of army stationed in Lhasa shall be taken by Youji stationed in Tibetan. The header of army stationed in Shigatse shall be taken by Dusi resident in Tibetan. Rosters of the above new army, one copy shall be kept in the Amban Office, and another one in Kashag. It should have supplement based on the roasters in case of loss of soldiers due to death or other reasons.
Article 5 Regarding the army organization, only Daiben was set formerly; now arrange twelve Rubens under Daiben with each Ruben managing 250 soldiers; arrange twenty-four Jiabens under Ruben with each Jiaben managing 125 soldiers; arrange Dingben under Jiaben with each Dingben managing twenty-five soldiers. Above army members should be selected from young and promising ones with certifications issued to them. Daibens are supplemented by promoting Ruben; Rubens are supplemented by promoting Jiaben; Jiabens are supplemented by promoting Dingben and so on. Even for the ones with noble and officer background, they should follow the regulations to get promotion grade by grade with no permission of across grades promotion. Based on the old regulation, generally civilians are not permitted to take the roles, while, from now on, promotion is conducted grade by grade on the basis of intelligent and courageous skills, and should never be blocked by background.
Article 6 Formerly no provisions, funds and weapons were delivered to soldiers, from now on, each soldier is granted grain of two Dan and five Dou annually, which needs a total of 7500 Dan grains. The income of both the Ü-Tsang and Gtsang is not enough to pay it. The deficiency is made up of the land property income from Shamarpa, Chogyam Drungpa Hutuktu and Tenzin Paljor. If for further deficiency, it shall be paid by selling the estates of Shamarpa Lozang Jampel. Then it shall be enough for the payment. What's more, all soldiers registered will be decreed licenses for relief of corvee by the Dalai Lama. As all Daibens already have Daiben manors, they shall not be paid wages then. Each Ruben is paid 36 taels of silver annually; each Jiaben is paid 20 taels of silver annually; each Dingben is paid 14 taels of silver annually. Thus a total of 2600 taels of sliver shall be paid by Tibetan government annually. The Tibetan government shall submit the money to the Amban, who will dispatch to army members in each spring and autumn respectively.
Article 7 Regarding the army's weapons, half shall be equipped with muskets, thirty percent shall use bows and arrows, and twenty percent, blades and spears. The weapons shall be sought and purchased from various monasteries of Ü-Tsang and Gtsang. The expense will be paid by partial of the income of Shamarpa's rangeland. The total annual income of the rangeland is more than 550 taels of silver. The government shall dispatch people to Kongpo and Banbar to make weapons and gunpowder. Drills shall be held often.
Article 8 Earnings of the Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni shall be managed by their relatives and retinues. It shall be audited by the Amban to avoid mistakes or frauds from now on and reported to the court in each spring and autumn respectively according to the Imperial Edit.
Article 9 Just as all Buddha helping and benefiting living creatures, the Dalai Lama coming to monks for preaching, showing respect is all for the happiness of all living creatures and pacifying subordinated people by mercy. However, trespass of properties happens sometimes. Therefore, it is determined that districts of Kyirong, Rongxia and Nyalam shall be exempted from paying corvee for two years, Tsongka, Tingri and Karda, one year. Corvee arrears before the year of Iron Pig shall be remitted in both the Ü-Tsang and Gtsang. Tax of District Zixue shall be reduced and half of corvee arrears of leaders of various Zongs shall be reduced. All these are for peace and repose of Tibet.
Article 10 In case of important affairs of the Amban Office, the Amban shall go to the Potala Palace for consultation. For all other affairs, the Amban, the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni enjoy the same status to consult equally. All grand and small Kulkus led by Kalon who taking official role in Tibet, shall follow Amban's assignment. Affairs of the Tashilhunpo Monastery shall be treated by Sopon Khenpo impartiality and should be reported to the Amban in advance in order that the Amban can verify them when going out for inspection.
Article 11 In case of a vacancy for Kalon, the Amban and the Dalai Lama shall select two persons from the Daibens, Zibens, and Qiangzuos after reviewing their performance in their official careers and then report for appointment. In case of a vacancy for Kalon Lama, it shall be selected from grand Khenpos. In case of a vacancy for Daiben, two persons shall be selected from Zongbens in border areas and reported for appointment. It ensures neither lack of military officers nor delay of drills. In case of a vacancy for Ziben and Qiangzuo, it shall be selected from Yecangba, Judge, Kashag grand secretary or Rtsedrung Lama. In case of a vacancy for Yecangba and Judge, it shall be selected from Sherpa, Midpon or Rtadpon. In case of a vacancy for Rtadpon, it shall be selected from Rdzongdpon of various levels and Kashag Zhongnis. In case of a vacancy for Yecangba and Sherpa, it shall be selected from monks. In case of a vacancy for grand secretary, it shall be selected from small secretaries or Zhongnis. In case of a vacancy for Zongben of grand Zong or border Zong, it shall be selected from Zongbens of small Zongs. In case of a vacancy for small secretary, it shall be selected from first-class soldiers or other proper members. In case of a vacancy for Zongben of border Zong or small Zong, it shall be selected from Zhongkes generally. Zongbens of all grand and small Zongs shall be registered for convenience of official business. Formerly, all monk officials and Zongbens, as Dalai Lama's retinues, were appointed by the deputy of Dalai Lama directly. From now on deputies shall report the Amban for their appointments and should not appoint these positions by themselves. For Zhongnis and secretaries for Kashag, though with low ranks, as Kashag's assistant, the position is important, therefore, it should be selected from promising Zhongkes. Two Zibens and two Zizhongs shall be set to manage coinage affairs, the Amban and the Dalai Lama consulting on their appointment. Appointments of Kalons and Daiben need to be reported, other appointments shall be conducted by the Dalai Lama and the Amban directly. Apppintment certifications in Manchu, Han and Tibetan languages shall be issued. Firewood, Zanba, tents and ranch managers and guards, can be appointed by the Dalai Lama directly. In case of a vacancy for Qiangzuo of the Tashilhunpo Monastery, it shall be selected from Suoben Lamas and Senben Lamas. In case of a vacancy for Suoben, it shall be selected from Zizhongs. In case of a vacancy for Senben, it shall be selected from Zhongnis. It follows the grade-by-grade promotion. As the Tashilhunpo Monastery is small area, Ulas management can follow former practices. Following Ü-Tsang's practices, Qiang Zuo, Suoben, Senben and Zongbens of Grand Zongs shall be appointed according to the consultation between the Amban and the Panchen Erdeni with appointment certification issued. Other low rank positions can be appointed following former practices.
Article 12 When the Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni are still alive, their relatives shall not be involved in government affairs. Their relatives can take official roles based on personal skills only after the Dalai Lama or Panchen Erdeni pass away.
Article 13 The two the Amban shall conduct two tours in turn in spring and autumn respectively to inspect the military training drill ground in Gtsang. The situation on whether Han officials or Zongbens bully and exploit the people and army, should be reported to the Amban. All Ulas serving the Amban should be paid without arrears.
Article 14 Formerly regarding people from Gorkha, Bhutan, Dremojong and Jumpa coming Tibet for worshiping Buddha, paying tribute or doing business, the Dalai Lama might respond them with some inappropriateness, for instance, formerly it caused war due to improper responding during Gorkha people going negotiating on Zhangka affairs. Henceforth, responses shall be arranged based on Amban's order after Gorkha's special envoys meeting with the Dalai Lama and the Amban. Also, all letters from foreigners, should be reported to the Amban for review. Moreover, for people from Bhutan, Sikkim Jumpa, Luobaomengtang and other dependent nations dispatched for paying tributes to the Dalai Lama or Panchen Erdeni should be inspected in detail, should not be obstructed though. For all foreigners coming Tibet, Zongbens of various border Zongs shall register their number and report to the Amban. They should be inspected by Han officers of Gyantse and Tingri. the Amban can respond letters from various dependent nations by themselves. Letters to the Dalai Lama should be reported to the Amban and responded based on the Amban's judgments. Kalons are officers handling Han affairs, they should not communicate with outsiders without authorization. All letters from outsiders should be delivered to the Amban and be responded after discussion between the Amban and Dalai Lama and mustn't be answered with no authorization.
Article 15 In Kyirong, Nyalarm, Rongshar, Kaerda, Saga, Khumbu and other districts adjoining Gorkha, boundary tablets should be erected at the Risur Bridge on border with Kyirong and at Zham Bridge on border with Rongshar with no delay. Nepalese and Tibetan mustn't cross the border with no authorization. the Amban shall check out it when going out for investigation.
Article 16 Zongbens of border Zongs, taking the role of both managing local border people and inspecting travelers crossing borders, is a particularly important position. It will be harmful if less talent people take the roles. Thus, they shall be selected from competent small Zongbens or army leaders. Their performance shall be reviewed three years after the appointment, and they shall be promoted as Daibens if proved to be qualified and demoted otherwise.
Article 17 Formerly officers were all appointed from Zhongkes but never from civilians. Even appointed, civilians can only take low ranks under Dingben, apparently not a proper way. Henceforth, military people not from Zhongkes, however, with both intelligence and courage can be promoted from Dingben to Daiben through a step-by-step process. For general case, following old traditions, they are still appointed from Zhongke. In case of son inheriting position from father, which could be harmful, anyone under eighteen cannot be appointed as small secretary, Zhongni or Zongben of small Zongs.
Article 18 Khenpo, as leader of monastery, shall be taken by knowledgeable and noble people. Lamas from big monasteries hold many Nucas properites of monasteries and get business profit. Henceforth, the Dalai Lama, the Amban and Kyirong Hutuktu shall consult over the appointment of Lamas of big monasteries and together they shall issue and seal the certificates. For appointment of Khenpos of small monasteries, it shall be appointed by Dalai Lama following the old tradition.
Article 19 The tax silver procured by government or silver used for exchange of goods, that is newly made according to the ordinance, should be exchanged based on the price ratio between new and old Zhangkas with no extra money charged.
Article 20 Tariff for rice, salt, goods, etc. shall be levied in Kyirong and Nyalarm, and the amount of taxes should not to be raised without the Amban's permission.
Article 21 Tibetan people need pay Ula and other corvees. Poor people bear heavy burden, while, rich families might gain duty-free licenses. Grand Hutuktus might decree licenses to some of Dalai Lama's relatives and people resident in manors of Kalon, Daiben, Grand Lama also bear light corvees due to holding licenses. Henceforth, all corvee-free licenses shall be revoked, and all kinds of corvees shall be equally shared since then. If for case need special treatment, the Dalai Lama and the Amban shall issue licenses for exemption of corvees after mutual consultation. All new military recruits shall be sent corvee-free licenses. Licenses shall be taken back in case of death.
Article 22 The numbers and names of grand and small Lamas and Drakpas should be registered in detail. Roasters of people subordinated by Hutuktus should be made by Kalons. One copy of the roasters shall be kept by the Amban and another one by the Dalai Lama for further check. Henceforth, whoever found crossing borders without passport will be punished strictly.
Article 23 Formerly the situation on Qinghai officers dispatching people to Tibet for greeting knowledgeable Lamas were partially reported to the Amban, henceforth, it needs Xining ministers to send official letters to the Amban, then the Amban issues passport for them. the Amban shall send official letters to Xining ministers for inspection. Lamas go to outsider for worshiping Buddha should get passports from the Amban, and mustn't pass through with no authorization.
Article 24 According to old tradition, licenses on dispatching Ula were issued by the Dalai Lama. Formerly relatives of Kalon, Daiben and the Dalai Lama might dispatch horses for taking foods or other affairs. Henceforth, Ulas cannot be dispatched for personal affairs and licenses cannot be issued without authorization in the cases. All official affairs shall be reported and corresponding licenses shall be issued by the Amban and the Dalai Lama. Ulas shall be dispatched according to the licenses along the way.
Article 25 For punishment of affray, murder and loot cases, formerly the rules of Tibet and the ones of the mainland were different, it cannot follow old rules from now on. Punishment shall be conducted based on severity of crimes to convince people. Lately, Kalon and Miben do not treat cases impartially. They take extra fines and keep large quantity of gold, silver, cattle, sheep confiscated from rich families by themselves but not submit them to the government. It's quite common for Kalons to abuse power to arbitrarily convict people of low status and report to the Dalai Lama for confiscation of their properties. Henceforth, how much being fined and forfeited should be reported to the Amban for registration according to the ordinance. Criminals committing the most heinous crimes should be settled by the Amban. Meanwhile, confiscation of properties shall be reported to the Amban for suitable treatment. Henceforth, all lawsuits either for public issues or personal issues should be settled impartially. In case of Kalons abusing power to seize people's properties groundlessly, they will be dismissed and confiscated of their properties.
Article 26 Kalons shall dispatch competent officials to Kongpo area carrying official documents of the Amban to manufacture the ammunition needed for soldiers’ maneuvers. The ammunition shall be distributed to various departments after being delivered to Lhasa. Formerly, Gtsang did not have cannon. Two of the thirteen newly made cannons shall be distributed to Gtsang, used in target shooting drill and all the rest shall be turned over to the Potala Palace.
Article 27 Formerly, Kalons and Daibens were conferred mansions and manors by the Dalai Lama and they should turn over them to their successors when retired. However, some families might still occupy them after the retirement but not turn over. Formerly in the case, new mansions and manors were conferred to the successors. Henceforth, any retired Kalon or Duiboin should turn over his mansion and manor to their successors.
Article 28 According to old practice, salaries of Living Buddhas and Lamas shall be paid as scheduled. However, lately it's found paying in advance happens frequently. Henceforth, the salary of Living Buddhas and lamas shall be paid as scheduled and not in advance. Kyirong Hutuktu should investigate carefully. People in charge will be published if paying in advance or paying amount mismatched are found.
Article 29 Tibetan people should pay tax. Zizhong shall be dispatched to come to nearby areas for pursuing tax. Xuezong shall be dispatched to come too far away areas for pursuing tax. Formerly a few Zhongkes and Zongbens did not turn over tax payment to government, which caused lots of tax arrears happened. It also occurred that pursuing tax of the next year and transferring fleeing families’ tax to resident families, which doing harm to the families with much burden added to them. Henceforth, Zhongke, Zongben etc. can only pursue tax annually based on scheduled time and amount, and cannot pursue tax in advance. Tax of fleeing families should be exempted and shall recover when they come back.
The 2nd month of the 58th year under the reign of Emperor Qianlong